Background: This was the first of my two films made for the BBC. Late in 1962 I was engaged as an assistant producer for its newly established Channel 2, and some eighteen months later, after I had worked as an assistant to the producer Stephen Hearst on several of his documentaries, Huw Wheldon, then Head of the Documentary Film Department, gave me the opportunity and a small budget to produce a film on the Battle of Culloden. The idea for this project had its genesis with friends from ‘Playcraft’ suggesting that I read the excellent study by John Prebble, entitled Culloden - which was to become the main foundation for my film.
The Battle of Culloden, which took place on April 16, 1746, was the last battle fought on British soil. Some months earlier Prince Charles Edward Stuart (‘Bonne Prince Charlie’), son of James Edward, the Catholic Pretender to the British throne, had landed in Scotland, raised a ragged but tough-spirited Jacobite army from amongst the Gaelic-speaking Highland clans, and marched as far south as Derby before having to retreat back to the Highlands. He was pursued into Scotland by a powerful force of 9,000 redcoats under the command of William Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland, strengthened by Protestant Scot Lowlanders and several Highland clans loyal to King George II. Outside Inverness, on the bleak, rain-swept Culloden Moor, nearly 1,000 of Charlie’s army, made up of 5,000 weak and starving Highlanders, were slaughtered by the Royal Army, who lost 50 men. The Highlanders finally broke and fled. Approximately 1,000 more of them were killed in subsequent weeks of hounding by British troops, during what became known as the “rape” of the Highlands, and which led to the destruction of the Gaelic clan culture and to the deportations, known as the ‘Highland Clearances’, during the following century.
Motivation: This was the 1960s, and the US army was ‘pacifying’ the Vietnam highlands. I wanted to draw a parallel between these events and what had happened in our own UK Highlands two centuries earlier, including because our knowledge of what took place after ‘Culloden’ was basically limited to an exotic image of ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’ on the label of a Drambuie whiskey bottle. Secondly, I wanted to break through the conventional use of professional actors in historical melodramas, with the comfortable avoidance of reality that these provide, and to use amateurs - ordinary people - in a reconstruction of their own history. Many of the people portraying the Highland army in our film were direct descendants of those who had been killed on the Culloden Moor.
Filming: ‘Culloden’ was filmed in August 1964, near Inverness, with an all-amateur cast from London and the Scottish Lowlands playing the royalist forces, and people from Inverness in the clan army. With photographer Dick Bush, recordists John Gatland and Hou Hanks, make-up artist Ann Brodie, battle co-ordinator Derek Ware, film editor Michael Bradsell, and with the help of friends and actors from ‘Playcraft’ in Canterbury, we made and edited our film as though it was happening in front of news cameras, and deliberately reminiscent of scenes from Vietnam which were appearing on TV at that time.
Reaction: ‘Culloden’ was first screened by the BBC on December 15, 1964, and - with the possible exception of ‘Edvard Munch’ - remains the only film I have produced which has been broadly accepted in the UK. Its use of amateurs, mobile camera, “you-are-there” style, were seen as a breakthrough for TV documentary, paralleling advances being made at the BBC by Ken Loach, and by Ken Russell and other filmmakers.
‘... an artistic triumph for its maker’ (The Scotsman)
‘One of the bravest documentaries I can remember’ (The Sun)
‘An unforgettable experiment ... new and adventurous in technique’ (The Guardian)
‘... a breakthrough ...’ (The Observer)
‘Almost compulsively viewable’ (The Times)
‘... it worked brilliantly ...’ (Daily Mail)
‘... a sadistic and revolting programme’ (Birmingham Evening Mail)
‘The result was so unexpectedly convincing it gave me quite a shock. I have no hesitation in raving about it, even to the extent of muttering: breakthrough.’ (Observer Weekend Review)
Currently, it is very difficult to find good copies of ‘Culloden’. The BBC and the British Film Institute (who currently hold the rights), say they have no viewable prints in good condition. However, the British Film Institute (BFI) in London recently produced DVD and VHS versions of ‘Culloden’ and ‘The War Game’ and at a retrospective of my films held by the Ontario Cinematheque in Toronto, Canada (Spring, 2004), ‘Culloden’ was projected from a DVD version, and apparently the quality was excellent.
For non-theatrical use on DVD or VHS:
Erich Sargeant or Caroline Millar,
BFI Video Publishing,
The British Film Institute,
21 Stephen Street,
London, W1P 2LN
For rights clearance and general queries regarding commercial public screenings of ‘Culloden’, including from DVD, in Europe:
Room E148, Woodlands, 80 Wood Lane
London W12 OTT,
Tel: +44 (0)20 8433 2330
Fax: +44 (0)20 8433 3607 Fax
For DVD or VHS copies of ‘Culloden’ in North America, also for rights clearance to hold a commercial screening of ‘Culloden’ in North America:
Please apply to the BBC Worldwide office in New York or Hilary Read in the BBC Worldwide office in Toronto:
747 Third Avenue
New York, New York 10017
130 Spadina Avenue, Suite 401
Toronto, Ontario M5V 2L4
Note, the Ontario Cinematheque recently showed a 35mm print of THE WAR GAME, courtesy of the BFI collections. The contact was Andrew Youdell Andrew.Youdell@bfi.org.uk . In this instance, the rights were cleared with Hilary Read, BBC Worldwide in the Toronto office.
If you are inquirying from outside Europe, please also verify that this DVD can be shown in